The Significance of Cooking Equipments
The Academic expert chef Cemal Türkan, shared 'the significance of cooking equipments' topic with Chef's World. It is one of the important sections in his 4th edition of 'Kitchen Technology' book.
When a cuisine is built the most important element is the quality and usability of cooking equipments. In order to be efficient, cooking equipments should be chosen carefully. While choosing those equipments, opinions of both cuisine chef and the cooks who will use these items should be asked. Since an inappropriate cooking equipment decreases the work efficiency of chefs, it will also narrow the cuisine area, therefore, there will be a less space for the other equipments as well. While choosing the equipments there are some specifications that should be taken into consideration: the number of dishes will prepared; the quality of the menu, the characteristic of the kitchen (hotel, restaurant, school, hospital, etc.); the proxomity of the work place and its location; the energy that will be used and the disposition of the fuel, and many of these special requirements could be existed.
Cuisine Cooking Unit
It is the main tool of the kitchen. In the old days, whole cooking processes were done by classic cuisines that is formed by an only one unit. Now, various of cooking elements are added to the cuisines. Cuisine could be mounted to the wall or put in the middle of the kitchen. Besides, the cuisines vary depends on the menu type. For instance, the kitchen of the a? la carte service cuisine is different from the other classic cuisines. Because in the a? la carte service, the dishes are done in small amounts and small equipments are used. For this reason, the burners should also be small. For the a? la carte menu dishes, special sauces are prepared and these sauces are only arranged on the cast-iron cuisine plate. Whether the cuisine is big or small, if it is possible, the gastronorms should be preferred. A cuisine is formed by at least three parts: Open şame fire part, covered part of the fire with plate (grill), and the oven part. In some kitchens there are numerous cookers and heaters are added. For example, boiling cauldron, frying pan, grill, electric deep fryer, salamander stove, bain-marie etc. Nevertheless, some firms make their cuisine elements according to universal measurements (gastronorm), in order to articulate every type of equipment or cookingtool easily whenever it is required. Besides, for the security reasons, when buying gaseous devices there should always be a thermo-couple.
Sometimes the cuisine's its own oven is inadequate. For this reason, separate ovens are needed. These ovens could be mounted near to the cuisine (cooking unit) or to a different place. There are separate oven models that work in various ways: Traditional (static) ovens, convection oven (turbo), steam-convection oven.
Traditional ovens: These are the the ones that work through direct heating system. The heating system could work with wood, charcoal, diesel fuel, gas and electricity. However, the ones that work with gas or electricity, since they have thermostat, the heating regulation could be fully done. The other traditional ovens, nevertheless, lack of the thermostat, so, the heating regulation could not be easily done.
Convection ovens: The temperature of the oven is moved and rotated by the help of the turbines and propellers, in order to activate the heat. In this method, from outside, solely, the necessary air is extracted. Thus, as it is in the direct heating oven, the continuous and not economic air stream is prevented. The product, due to it is cooked with the convection system, saves its moisture so the result is better. Moreover, the product is cooked in a balanced way on all sides are roasted. It is also an advantageous method, since it saves the energy. The oven's temperature is fixed by its thermostat. Besides, the cooking time is also determined by an indicator that has both warning system and a timer. These oven's cooking trays provide a work in three different capacities, and they are compatible with the gastronorms. They can cook 5-10 trays of dishes in a balanced and economical way. This means that, they supply a massive time and human power saving. It is also noteworthy to know that, the ovens that work with gas causes some problems. If it is possible the ones that work with electricity should be preferred.
Steam-convection ovens: This two-functioned oven advantages a few methods of cooking. Traditional dry cooking, between 50-300°C roast meat, roast chicken, pastry frying; moist heat cooking, sometimes while cooking, steam is given to oven in order to cook dishes better. The process of steaming is chieşy used by the pastry cookers. At the same time, it moisturizes the dishes and prevents them to get dried. Steaming is like baking a fish or vegetable in 100°C .
Steaming method is so quick and it provides an immense heat conduction that both quickens the cooking time and make them healthier. Nowadays, in the professional cuisines, steam apparatus are started to use widely. Steam cookers are produced in various models. We could list the fundamental advantages of the steam cookers as follows:
•Cooking with steam cooker is the quickest way rather than cooking with traditional cooker.
•Heating time is quite short. So you do not wait for the heating of water as in conventional cooking.
•Since the process begins as soon as our food is ready for cooking, nutritional values, is better preserved.
•You need less water to cook. •The cleaning of the device is very easy due
to substances do not adhere during cooking. •Appearance and vitality of the vegetables are very well preserved.
Generally made of stainless steel, they are in shapes of square, rectangular, and cylindrical. On these pots there is a hot-cold faucet. In front of it, (at the bottom) there is a strained waste water charge. There are types such as fixed and tilting and their cover is attached. These saucepans can be adjacent to the cuisine or they can be mounted to a separate place. They get warmer with a special heatingsystem; gas, electric, hot water, and steam.
They work either with gas or electricity. It is a tool that is not so deep, and its bottom is plain with a square shape. It also has a cover. These pans might be either tilting or fixed. The tilting process is done by a lever. Naturally, the tilting ones are more practical. This tool can be adjacent to the cuisine or they can be mounted to a separate place. This large-capacity pans can do rice, saute?, boiling, roasting etc. This is an indispensible equipment for the medium and the high-capacity kitchens.
Almost all kitchens use deep fryers instead of frying pans. These deep fryers are comfy, secure and modern equipments. Generally made of stainless steel they work either with gas or electricity. We could list the fundamental advantages of the deep fryers as follows:
•Frying oil temperature setting on a thermostat can be adjusted by the desired temperature. (to avoid damage to the oil burning the heat limit does not outreach 220°C.)
•There is a time setting for the security of the cooking duration.
•Each frying oil has drain cocks to filter and drain oil.
•To prevent şooding of the oil, there is the maximum mark. •These deep fryers do all types of cooking: Potatoes,
vegetables, meat, chicken, fish etc. •In order to prevent oil from burning, there is a cold area section in the modern deep fryers. These type of deep fryers pollute less frying oil. Also, frying oil lasts longer.
In order to prevent the smoke, the grill should be put under the paddle box. If the charcoal is used in the grill, a good, absorbing chimney is needed. There are three types of grills: grills working with the wood coal (preferably oak coal). The dishes made with this type of grill is more delicious than the other types, however it is pollutant, burdensome and its maintenance is difficult. Another type is grills working with gas. This type of grills are made of thick iron and curved forward. The heating of the grill is made by the burner or burners. The temperature can be adjusted to taste. Using the electrical energy, these grills are the cleanest and the most comfortable ones. Heat setting is done by a thermostat just as its desired.
Salamander is like an oven without a cover on it. It is installed at an eye level, in a place over the cuisine. It gives the temperature from top to the bottom. The dish is roasted instantly due to the strong heat provided from top of the stove directly to the meal. So, dish is roasted in a short time with a better taste. This device is usually found in luxury hotels and restaurant kitchens. Salamanders work either with gas or electricity.
Generally it is adjacent to the cuisine and also found in the service area. This device provides sauces and some dishes to remain hot. There are models working with gas and electricity. In gas bain-marie, the burner, and in the electric bain-marie the resistance controls the heated temperature of the water. Gastronorm cups should be preferred, the ones that are compatible, made with stainless steel. In terms of hygiene, it is very dangerous to heat a cold dish on this device. Because dishes will heat slowly, germs can breed. Dishes should be cooked or boiled, then, they should be kept warm in Bain-Marie.
These cabinets are heated by the electrical resistance , warm temperature. In front of the control panel the desired temperature can be adjusted. Their electricity consumption is low. It is found where the hot dishes distributed. At the same time, serving of hot dishes are done on the temperature plate. This device is a supplementary tool, used as a heating plate, to keep warm ready to serve meals, bakery, in a yeast process, very necessary tool in such work. This is a must item for gourmet restaurants.
Unlike other ovens, microwaves cook or heat foods from the inside outward. In terms of microwave, all the safety precautions have been taken. When the cover is open or not closed properly the device stops taking action. Generally, covers are transparent and you can see inside of the microwave. The control pannel allows the defrosting, heating and cooking jobs done quickly and easily. Metal containers should never be put in to the microwaves due to electro-magnetic şow of metal does not exceed, the warming is not occurring, so the device breaks. Foods must be placed in glass, porcelain, plastic, cardboard containers while putting to the microwave. Even though, the functions of microwaves are limited, they are so quick and practical for a device that every kitchen should have one. Because the system has no frying feature and it dries the foods while cooking , it is mostly utilized for heating and defrosting. Nevertheless, it also can do some cooking jobs. For instance in urgent situations, it can continue to cook foods which are half-baked. The best feature of the microwave is that cooled off a plate dinner can be heated up in half a minute without any action. This feature is a great help for many chefs in tight times.